Published January 25, 2021

Find resources and tools for understanding tumor-specific response and resistance to cancer immunotherapies.  


What is immunotherapy?

Immunotherapy is a revolutionary approach to cancer treatment that helps the immune system recognize and attack cancer cells1. Current immunotherapies include immune checkpoint inhibitors, CAR-T cells, vaccines, and monoclonal antibodies that, for a subset of patients, has provided long-term, durable responses to a variety of cancers. However, some patients fail to respond to treatment at all, while others achieve a limited response followed by tumor progression. Therefore, understanding the factors that contribute to an effective response and determining mechanisms of resistance will be critical as immunotherapies are applied more broadly2.

The role of the immune system

The function of the immune system is to protect against disease and clear the body of unhealthy, ailing cells, including cancer cells. T cells selectively recognize and kill pathogens and unhealthy cells by orchestrating a coordinated immune response, including innate and adaptive responses.  However, various cancers have unique triggers that result in evasion from the immune response, making them more resistant to immunity3.

Immunotherapy involves strengthening the cancer patient’s immune system by improving its tumor recognition ability or providing a missing immune effector function to provide durable, adaptable cancer control4,5.

​Flexible, validated research solutions

Discover reagents to novel targets and emerging multiplex technologies to support your immuno-oncology research and assay development. Here we’ve highlighted key products so you can easily select the best one. ​​

Key targets involved in tumor resistance: STING, IDO1, and VISTA 


Stimulator of interferon genes (STING) is a signaling molecule that plays a crucial role in controlling the transcription of many host defense genes such as pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Previous studies into the roles of STING in immunomodulation showed the potential of STING agonists as cancer therapeutics to activate antitumor immune responses6.​

Product highlight

​Recombinant STING (Anti-TMEM173 antibody [EPR13130-55] (ab239074)Rabbit monoclonal to STINGSuitable for: WB, ICC/IF, IP, IHC-P, Flow CytReacts with: Human

View the full range of products to STING


Indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenases (IDO1 and IDO2) are tryptophan catabolic enzymes that catalyze the conversion of tryptophan into kynurenine. The resulting depletion of tryptophan and subsequent increase in kynurenine exert important immunosuppressive functions, thus making IDO1 a potential therapeutic opportunity in cancer immunotherapy7. ​

Product highlight

Recombinant IDO1 (anti-Indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase)  antibody [EPR20374] (ab211017)Rabbit monoclonal to Indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenaseSuitable for: WB, ICC/IF, Flow Cyt, IP, IHC-PReacts with: Human

View all products to IDO1 here


V-domain Ig suppressor of T cell activation (VISTA) is a novel checkpoint inhibitor that is a promising target for immunotherapeutic intervention due to its role in regulating innate and adaptive immune responses8.

Product highlight

​​Recombinant VISTA antibody [EPR21050] (ab230950)

Rabbit monoclonal to VISTASuitable for: WB, IHC-P, IPReacts with: Human

View the full range of VISTA products

Flow cytometry antibodies to support the studies of live cells​

Flow cytometry allows the simultaneous, multi-parameter analysis of single cells and is a widely used method for characterizing and defining different cell types in a heterogeneous cell population. In recent years, the application of flow cytometry for analyzing the presence of cell types associated with a metastatic event, such as circulating tumor cells, has become more promising9.

Our range of recombinant, monoclonal antibodies are validated in flow cytometry and provide the highest level of consistency between batches, giving you the highly reproducible results your research requires. 

Product nameabIDSpecies
Anti-CXCL9 antibody [EPR23999-5]ab263442Human
Anti-PD-L1 antibody [EPR23546-160]ab252436Mouse
Anti-Ras antibody [EPR23474-20]ab275875Human, Mouse, Rat
Anti-KLRF1 antibody [EPR23633-150]ab256809Human
Anti-eNOS antibody [EPR23750-3]ab252439Human
Anti-MICA antibody [EPR24086-121]ab259934Human
Anti-CCL4/MIP-1 beta antibody [EPR23610-40]ab254371Human, Mouse
Anti-CCR4 antibody [EPR23502-85]ab254376Human
Anti-CD58 antibody [EPR24012-147]ab275392Human
Anti-CD83 antibody [3D11]ab252822Mouse
Anti-CD16+CD32 antibody [EPR23501-203]ab223200Mouse
Anti-KRAS antibody [EPR23474-76]ab275876Human
Anti-Galectin 9 antibody [EPR23853-132]ab275877Mouse
Anti-Semaphorin 4D/CD100 antibody [EPR23866-69]ab275393Human
Anti-CD52 antibody [EPR23855-41]ab259794Human
Anti-CD83 antibody [EPR23809-19]ab275021Human
Anti-NG2 antibody [EPR23752-147]ab259324Mouse, Rat
Anti-NG2 antibody [EPR23976-145]ab275024Human, Mouse, Rat
Anti-FGL1 antibody [EPR24018-27]ab275091Human
Anti-HHLA2 antibody [EPR23563-120]ab254367Human
Anti-TWEAKR/FN14 antibody [EPR23427-30]ab275375Mouse
Anti-GPR56 antibody [EPR23908-109]ab259820Human
Anti-CD160 antibody [EPR23644-24]ab274374Human
Anti-CXCR3 antibody [EPR23845-44]ab259865Human
Anti-IL-21R antibody [EPR23637-53]ab256796Human
Anti-PVRIG/CD112R antibody [EPR23797-104]ab256808Human
Anti-4-1BBL antibody [EPR21995-147]ab254385Human
Anti-ADAM10 antibody [EPR23491-74]ab252234Human

Antibody panels to increase your chances of success​

Our range of hand-picked antibody panels to key immuno-oncology targets are designed to save you time and provide you with easy access to the best selection of clones on the market. Each panel contains a selection of monoclonal antibodies that detect the same protein to increase your chances of finding a compatible clone for your assay with just one purchase.

Recommended products

abIDProduct nameab254018T Cell Exhaustion Marker (PD1, CTLA4, TIM3, LAG3, TIGIT) Antibody Panel ab254024T cell Activation Marker (CD69, CD137, CD27, TRAP/CD40L, CD134) Antibody Panelab254021Regulatory T Cell Marker (CD4, FOXP3, CTLA4, CCR6, HLA-DR) Antibody Panelab269812PD-L1 / PD1 Multiplex IHC-IF (PD-L1, PD1, CD68, CD3, Ki67, panCK) Antibody Panel 

​Advancing immuno-oncology research, together

For more information on how we can support your research and assay development with our tailored solutions, contact a member of the immuno-oncology team, here.


  1. Cancer Research UK. What is immunotherapy. Available at:
  2. Braun, D.A et al., Genomic Approaches to Understanding Response and Resistance to Immunotherapy Clin Cancer Res 22(23), 5642-5650 (2016).
  3. Pandya, P.H. et al., The Immune System in Cancer Pathogenesis: Potential Therapeutic Approaches J Immunol Res (2016).
  4. Finn, O.J. Immuno-oncology: understanding the function and dysfunction of the immune system in cancer Ann Oncol 23, viii6-viii9 (2012).
  5. Drake, C.G. Combination immunotherapy approaches Ann Oncol 23, viii41-viii46 (2012).
  6. Su, T. et al. STING activation in cancer immunotherapy Theranostics 9, 7759-7771 (2019).
  7. Liu, M. et al. Targeting the IDO1 pathway in cancer: from bench to bedside Journal of Hematology & Oncology 11 (2018).
  8. EITanbouly, M.A. et al. VISTA: A novel immunotherapy target for normalizing innate and adaptive immunity Semin Immunol 42 (2019).
  9. Danova, M. et al. The role of automated cytometry in the new era of cancer immunotherapy (Review) Molecular and Clinical Oncology 9, pages 355-361 (2018).